From the support viewpoint and construction methods, tunnel and underground gallery waterproofing are classified as follows:
Tunnel construction with shortcrete support.
Most geotextile and geomembrane applications in tunnel construction are included here. Waterproofing is with a geotextile and a geomembrane installed in the final work stage. i.e. when the support has been fitted, drainage waters collected an regularisation carried out. After placing the waterproofing, the definitive structural covering id laid.
Tunnel construction with voussoir or segment support
An important field is that of tunnels built without shotcrete support, but which incorporate voussoir or segments (prefabricated reinforced concrete or steel elements). Waterproofing with geomembrane is merely circumstantial depending on each case.
Opencut tunnels and galleries
This is an important geomembrane and geotextile application where waterproofing is done outside the covering. The geotextile is laid over this to mechanically protect the geomembrane of the land filling and evacuate filtration water on its plane, even under strong compression pressures.
Another type of open cut underground construction
In each specific case, these waterproofing require specific treatment depending on construction technique and design details.
In tunnels where the dimensions allow it or the road surface can be lowered, existing tunnels may be waterproofed analogously to those newly built.
Pressure or drainage galleries, footplates against vault or ventilation shafts.
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